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经济学人,双语阅读

2019-09-14 08:43 来源:未知

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括号里的是注解,不是原文

An army of Chineseshoppers dictates the fate of Australian brands

(中国代购大军决定着澳洲品牌的命运,很喜欢经济学人的这种戏谑风格,an army of)

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How firms Down Undercame toembrace daigou

(embrace 用法)

THE first daigou, meaning someone who makes purchases on another’s behalf, were Chinese students studying abroad, whohauleddesirable products home on behalf of family and friends. Adding a commission helped them pay their tuition fees. The spread of social-networking apps such as WeChat, China’s most popular, brought the business online. Daigou could then offer their services to friends of friends, and promote items they thought might appeal to their network. But whereas daigou in America and Europeprocure mainly luxury goods for their customers—a function of high Chinese tariffs—in Australia they buy mainly vitamins, food and beauty products.And whereas luxury brands see daigou as a menace, undercutting sales in China, Australian firms have come to embrace them.

(haul:to pull or drag something with effort

欧洲代购的都是奢侈品,澳洲新西兰代购则是一些维生素、食品和护肤品)

There are perhaps 50,000 daigou, stalking the aisles of Australian shops and periodically stripping them bare.The small fry alone post 60,000 parcels to China every day. The biggest have grown into organised export businesses which funnel goods through China’s free-trade zones. Express delivery services to China haveproliferated, and some 1,500 stores in Australiacater mainly to daigou. One such chain, AuMake, recently listed on the Australian Securities Exchange. Its bilingual sales staff can arrange for a purchase to be posted to China as soon as it has been rung up.

(澳洲5万中国代购大军!

stalking 和 stripping 这里用的超级妙,学起来

proliferate: to increase in nummber or amount quickly

cater to:  这个用法记起来)



The appeal for the customers is simple: the products daigou post are guaranteed to be genuine. After Chinese firms were found to have been selling contaminated milk powder in 2008, many anxious Chinese parents turned to foreign brands.But websites peddling foreign goods are riddled with counterfeits, while Chinese shops charge a fortune for the real thing.

(peddle:to sell something usually in small amounts and often by travelling to different places

riddle: to fill with something that is bad or unpleasant)



The odd sales channel works for companies, too. Daigou allow young Australian firms to build their brands in China much more cheaply and easily than if they tried to market their products directly, argues Keong Chan, the chairman of AuMake. A firm called the a2 Milk Company doubled its profit in the year to June thanks tosoaring Chinese demand. Daigou account for more of those sales than Chinese retailers or e-commerce sites, according to Peter Nathan, who heads its Asia-Pacific unit. Businesses fall over themselves to win the favour of the most influential daigou, offering discounts and Chinese marketing materials. “It’s like having a 50,000-strong sales force,” says Andrew Cohen, chief executive of Bellamy’s, a listed manufacturer of infant formula.

(两个澳洲知名代购品牌:A2奶粉和贝拉美Bellamy)

Bellamy’s learned the hard way. It used to worry aboutentrustingso important a market tosquads of anonymous intermediaries. Daigou had earned a bad press in Australiaforcreating shortages of certain goods andforfailing to pay tax on their commissions. Worse, the Chinese authorities began talking last year about demanding import duties on personal packages, a move that the firm feared might undermine sales through daigou.

entrust: to give someone the responsibility of doing something or of caring for someone or something

squad: a group of people who are involved in a particular activity

So Bellamy’s decided to funnel its wares to Chinese retailers and e-tailers, who in turn offered big discounts to customers, undercutting the daigou.This approach backfired completely, as daigou abandoned Bellamy’s products.Salesplunged. The firm’s share price collapsed;heads rolled. Bellamy’s recently cut back sales to other distributors, restoring daigou to prime position once again.

(plunge: to fall or drop suddenly in amount,value etc.  =plummet

贝拉美想砍掉代购这个不正规的渠道,惹怒了代购们,然后销量大减后又重新把代购放回最重要的销售渠道)



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http://www.slideshare.net/JiahaoYang2/pampers-marketing-plan

Asians are known the world over as being “good at math.” This is a stereotype perpetuated by popular culture in the West. But is there some truth to it? Yes, as it turns out. I can say that in daily life, Chinese people do more math than their American counterparts. In fact, one can even say daily life in China is an ongoing math test. Right off the top of my head, I can think of three examples, starting with shopping in China’s capital.

Dave Schoch has one of the toughest jobs at Ford Motor Co.: catching the competition in the world’s biggest car market.

Introduction and History of Pampers in China

亚洲人比其他地区的人更“精于算数”,这种印象在西方世界深入人心,但这是事实吗?没错,事实确实如此。可以这么说,日常生活中中国人比美国人做更多算数。在中国的生活就像参加一场数学测试,我当下就可以想到三个例子,先拿在北京购物来说吧。

When Schoch arrived in China 13 years ago, the government was building eight-lane freeways in major cities, but bicyclists and pedestrians still filled the streets. The Chinese were buying fewer than 2 million cars and trucks each year, a fraction of the 14.4 million sold in 2000 in the U.S.

In 1998, P&G entered the diaper market of China. During that time, most parents in China were not accustomed to use diaper for their babies. Instead they tended to use split pants, which is a kind of pants with a crack at the part of hip. Plastic and paper diaper was rare in that period.

When you walk into any department store in Beijing, chances are there is a sale going on. You will see signs with a single digit number and the Chinese character zhe prominently displayed next to products that are on sale. Experienced shoppers can jump to the conclusion that 7 zhe must mean 70% discount. Alas, the Chinese system encourages shoppers to go one extra step in calculating their discount: i.e., 7 zhe means you pay 70 percent, resulting in a 30 percent discount. Some adults in the West couldn’t do this simple math in their heads. Because, why would you need to? We left all that behind in elementary school.

When he returned to China last year, Schoch was stunned. The freeways were choked with cars, from inexpensive, Chinese-made Wuling minivans to Mercedes-Benz sedans. The red-hot Chinese economy had more than doubled annual wages, giving millions of people the money to buy a first vehicle or move up to a luxury brand.

In order to develop a disposable diaper market in China, P&G decided to introduce a kind of diaper which is of cheaper price with an inferior quality of their origin product. They innocently regarded Chinese consumers as bargainers with all their purchases. This wrong position of the diaper made the first step of Pampers in China a really tough step. To most of the parents in China, the cloth and split pants which has been used for hundreds of years seems still worked well in 20th century. It is unnecessary to change it into a diaper. As for the emerging middle-class parents, they tended to make their purchase decisions based on what it best for their only child rather than what is cheaper. They wer premium quality seeker. It was clear Pampers diapers did not satisfied their needs. Pamper was just some irritating plastic in their eyes. Although the usage of diaper kept growing slowly, the huge market is still a sleeping market.

进到北京任何一家百货公司,你可能都会看到店家在搞促销活动,商品旁边贴着醒目的促销牌子,上边会有数字和一个中国汉字“折”。经常购物的顾客可能草率地认为7折也就是有70%的折扣。唉,中国这种促销方式使得顾客在计算折扣的时候多了一步,比如说7折就是支付70%,也就是30%的折扣。有些西方人就不会做这类简单的加减,有必要吗?他们早就把这点知识还给小学数学老师了。

“Things turned upside-down,” says Schoch, who was named head of Ford’s Asia Pacific operations in the fall. “You have to be here and experience it to believe what has happened in the last decade.”

In 2006, Pampers product quality was revised and they came up with softer and more absorbent diapers by developing more efficient technology platforms and even moved manufacturing operations to China in order to eliminate shipping costs. At that period the diaper market was still a little market compared to the huge population of China.

Another example is the loyalty card, or membership card, offered by retailers, dentists, hair salons and massage parlors, just to name a few. But signing up requires you to do math quickly in your head. The more you spend up front, the bigger the discounts, a not uncommon sales strategy. But commit at your own risk. If that business suddenly decides to close its doors, you will not be refunded, nor will you even be notified.

Last year, Chinese consumers bought 19 million cars and trucks — 5 million more than consumers in the U.S. Ford’s share of those sales was just 3 percent. Years of corporate chaos and financial trouble slowed Ford’s entry into China as its rivals gained a foothold. Together, General Motors and Volkswagen control a third of China’s market.

In 2007, Pampers tries again. But this time, they started by following the basics principles of a marketing strategy: Research and (only then) Development.

另一个例子就是在商店、牙医诊所、理发店或者按摩院等地方办理的积分卡。当你注册会员也需要飞快地计算,花的钱越多得到的折扣就越多,这是一种常见的销售策略。但是同时也要承担风险,比如商店突然关门歇业,你连退款都拿不到,甚至对此毫不知情。

But the race is far from over. China is still a country where just 58 out of every 1,000 people own cars. In the U.S., that number is closer to 800.

They realized that if they wanted to convince the Chinese consumer to buy Pampers diapers rather than to continue using spilt pants, they had to find what else Chinese parents needed.

Shopping for groceries was among the challenges we first encountered in Beijing. Trying to buy milk and yogurt at the local supermarket almost turned into an international incident when, upon seeing all the past expired dates marked on packages throughout the entire dairy section, I demanded to see a manager and tried to bring it to his attention. In vain, of course, as the language barrier prevented us from communicating effectively. Later, a friend explained that those were production dates, not expiration dates, as I had assumed. She also showed me where they helpfully printed the shelf life of each product. So, to put it in American terms, production date shelf life= expiration date. Again, they are encouraging shoppers to do math.

Every year, tens of millions of Chinese are reaching the income threshold they need to buy a car, Schoch says. Many analysts predict annual sales in China of 30 million by 2020, almost double the U.S. forecast of 17 million. It’s up to Schoch to ensure Ford gets a big chunk of that phenomenal growth.

P&G launched an in-depth research on the Chinese consumers, it turned out that their need was pretty simple: More Sleep. A universal need that any mother long for during the first years of having a baby, and an even more interesting fact came out of this in-depth research:  Mothers concern about the quality of their baby’s sleep and its impact on their future cognitive development, because of the one-child policy the parents are concerned with their child academic achievement as the Chinese society became more and more competitive.

在北京的杂货店购物也是我们初到北京市遇到的挑战之一,逛超市时还差一点酿出一起“国际事故”。当时我们想买点牛奶和酸奶,却发现整个奶制品区食品包装上的日期已经过期了,我要求见经理向对方反映问题。当然,因为语言障碍我们没有达成有效沟通,白费了力气。后来有朋友解释说,那些是生产日期而不是我认为的到期日,她还告诉我厂家贴心地把每件商品的保质期印在哪。所以按照美国的理解,就是生产日期 保质期=到期日。他们又在鼓励消费者做算数了。

“I go home each night thinking, ‘Have I really tried to move the needle? Are we moving the organization fast enough to take advantage of this? Because I really think we have a golden opportunity here,” he says.

After commissioning the Beijing Children’s Sleep Research Center for a study on how Pampers helped babies sleep better, they came out with the results that baby’s wearing Pampers diapers can fall asleep 30 percent faster, sleep an extra 30 minutes, and have 50 percent less sleep disruption through the night.

Newcomers to China will no doubt be confused about this system, which nobody here seems to think twice about. But as an American, it was all very taxing until I got clued in. I often felt put out that I had to be doing math when I simply wanted to buy stuff. But now that I’ve been here a while, I see the wisdom of such a system. Could it be how Chinese people stay sharp into old age? After all, using your brain with word games and riddles are believed to be countermeasures against the onset of Alzheimer’s disease and other age-related ailments. It appears that in China, they’ve incorporated into ordinary daily life a brilliant system where nobody forgets their early math lessons.

Ford wants to double its Chinese market share to 6 percent by 2015. To make that happen, the company is launching six new vehicles in China this year, including two small SUVs called the Kuga and the EcoSport, the Mondeo midsize sedan and the Explorer SUV, which is exported from Chicago. The Lincoln luxury brand will arrive next year.

Pampers then rethought its whole communication strategy and launched its “Golden Sleep” campaign.

刚来中国的人毫无疑问会被这种逻辑弄晕,而中国人却早已是司空见惯了。作为一个美国人,我费了很大劲儿才能弄明白。我经常觉得,自己只是想买点东西,却要做算数,真是不爽。但在这儿呆了一段时间,现在我才发现这种体系的智慧所在。这会不会就是中国人就算步入老年仍能保持思维敏捷的秘诀呢?毕竟动动脑子做文字和猜谜游戏能有效对抗老年痴呆以及其他与年龄相关的疾病。而在中国,他们将这种聪明的体系渗透到日常生活中,学到的数学知识总是不会荒废。

To meet its goals, the company has undertaken its most ambitious growth since Ford went on a postwar building spree in Michigan 60 years ago.

The aim of the “Golden Sleep” campaign was to frame Pampers as a product to improve the quality sleep of babies by communicating the “scientific” data results from the Sleep Research Center.

Ford is spending $5 billion to build five plants — including three assembly plants, an engine plant and a transmission plant — that will more than double its Chinese production capacity to 1.7 million vehicles by 2015.

The campaign on Pampers Chinese web site focused on encouraging mothers to see by themselves the positive effect Pampers diapers had on their babies sleep by launching a Sleep Tracker that allowed parents to monitor their baby's’ sleeping patterns and then asked them to post pictures of their sleeping baby on the website that would be incorporated later on into the largest photomontage ever-made and the goal was to make it into the Guinness World Record.

“They used to be laggard, cautious. But now they’re all in,” says Michael Dunne, president of the automotive consulting group Dunne and Co. in Hong Kong. “They are saying, ‘We have confidence in the China market. We have confidence in our products. We can win here.’ ”

This time, Pampers got a glorious victory. Instead of offering convenience and affordable product, Pampers successfully met a deeper need and educated Chinese mothers about the benefits of longer uninterrupted sleep for their baby’s cognitive development. P&G also take care and involved babies’ mothers in the product experience. This helped pampers walk through the barrier of tradition.

Ford sold a company record 407,721 vehicles in China in the first six months of this year. But that was only a quarter of the vehicles GM sold. Volkswagen has six brands aimed at every type of buyer in the vast Chinese market, from the cheap Skoda to the ultraluxury Bentley. Until Lincoln arrives, Ford has just one.

Pampers’ sale boomed 50 percent in the first year of the campaign. The diaper market in China also suffered a boom. Till 2010, P&G took up 42.7% percent of the 3 billion diaper market in China.

There are other obstacles. Ford cars are expensive. In a market where 70 percent of vehicles sold cost less than $14,500, Ford’s cheapest car is the Fiesta, which starts at $13,300. The Explorer starts around $80,000 thanks to a 25 percent import duty and other taxes.

However, in 2010, Pampers began to meet the tough challenge from competitors. This time, the wind comes from the east. In Japan, Kao’s product Merries holds a reputation as being especially gentle on babies’ skin. This helped it take a large part of Japanese market. This time the quality conquered the Chinese customers again. From 2010 till now Kao’s sale go up like a rocket. Its market share triple from 2010 to 2015, and trend seems will not stop in a while.

Ford’s development costs also are steep compared with competitors’ because it still does much of the research and design for Chinese vehicles at its headquarters in Dearborn, Mich., where costs are relatively high. Ford hopes to double its technical workforce in Nanjing to 1,500 people by 2015; GM already employs more than 2,000 people at its technical center in Shanghai.

Another Japanese Producer Unicharm, which is the leading diaper producer in Japan also have a steady growth another important fact is that Unicharm have owned distributors in more than 1500 cities in China the number was less than 500 in 2010.

Another interesting fact is the loss of sales of Pampers is not only from the Diaper produced in China. In fact the diaper import from Japan to China is growing crazily. This even causes a shortage of diaper in Japan of special brand. In fact, the sale of Merries also improves greatly in Japan. However most of the sales growth attributed to the customers in China.

Pampers is suffering a hard time with constant sales loss.  From the peak(near 45 percent) to now about 36 percent of market share. Especially in the area of high end-diaper which is taking a bigger and bigger market share. Pampers has a weak performance with its Japanese Competitors.

 Marketing Plan

The whole plan is divided into 4 parts and in every part, it will make an analysis of its point based on the traditional 4P’s theory, and then transfer it to our recommendation which is based on the new 4C’s theory

Part 1: Product vs Customer

The biggest mistake that P&G made is that it targeted the wrong consumer group. The old Pampers were made in China, had good but not top quality, and targeted on moms in general. They thought that all moms would buy Pampers for their children because it’s a big brand and they made good products. However, they were stuck in between the middle-class and lower-class market. The middle-class consumers want to get the best for their children. They want the top quality product and they deeply aware that the “made in China” label equals inferior goods. So they turn to the import diapers like Kao’s from Japan. Old Pampers clearly didn’t match their needs. Also, the lower-class consumers are mostly price-sensitive people, price is their first concern. In this market, there are already many local Chinese Brands there. The diapers they produce seems no difference to P&G and other big brands’ diapers in the lower-class’s eyes. So they went for the cheap Chinese diapers, P&G failed to grab this market as well. It turn out that it got stuck in between the middle-class and lower-class. So now, our suggestion for the new premium diaper’s positioning is that it should focus on the new middle-class ladies, who are willing to pay for their children,to get the best for them and favor foreign brands. First because of the popularity of diapers usage differs a lot from middle-class family to lower-class family. Among middle-class families who live in the big cities in China, statistics shows that more than 80% of them would buy diapers for their children. However, as for the lower-class people who live in rural areas of China, the diaper usage rate is lower than 15%. Despite as many as 78% of the total population in China are lower-class while about 20% are middle-class, the diaper market in lower-class is still really small. Moreover the lower-class consumers are the consumer group with the least purchase power. With all the cheap local Chinese brands competing there, that is really a small but fierce market. The effort of striving into this market far outweigh the output it may get in the end. So for a international big brand like P&G, with its new premium diapers, should totally focus on the middle-class market. As for the lower-class people, a small group of them may turn into middle-class in the future. Although now they are not so important, for the long term benefit of the company, we should still advertise on them so that P&G pampers diaper would become their first choice when they become middle-class. Here the emphasis should be put on the P&G brand instead of just the product itself. Because when they start to change the level of everything they buy, what goes in their mind first would be a big brand of many products instead of single dispersed products. Brand strategy is much better than product promotion here in order to get in their mind.

Part 2: Price vs Cost

Although we used to think that the customers of China more concerned about price, however as the economic developed and the income grows, we find that when it comes to children,the parents seems like does not mind the price, instead what they actually mind is the cost. That’s to say, they want to the product worth the price.

As you can see from the chart, the sales of diapers grows as the captia GDP grows and the speed is much faster than the capita gross domestic production, especially in 2013 and 2014.

Actually,from 2009 to 2014, the sales of diapers in China grew from 10 billion to 30 billion, that’s nearly tripled, while the captia GDP grew from 30000 yuan to about 40000 yuan, also much more faster than the income. In this way it shows that the parents is willing  to invest and pay more on their kids.

Also, we think that the social structure of modern China have influence on this. Due to the family planning and the fertility desire decline,there are fewer number of child for per family; thus the average resource of per kids have increase.That enables them to invest and pay more on their children. In this way, the parents are more willing to buy something with higher quality; they not only concentrate on the price but also the cost.

As all we was concerned above, we suggest that the Pampers may focus on the the middle-high level market. The middle-high level markets focus on those customers who want their babies live in high quality, just like Japanese brand Kao which grew rapidly and become one of the Pampers’ competitors  in recent year. To achieve this, the Pampers may need to emphasize the new products and its quality such as 100% chemical additive free and can prevent skin disease like miliaria in the advertisements. And the price should be higher than the average 1.5 yuan per piece and be located at around 2 yuan per piece; higher than the locally produce Kao, but lower than the Japanese Kao which is around 3 Yuan.

Part 3: Promotion vs Communication

Official website’s slogan: Care, Sleep well, Play freely. We care mothers from pregnant to raising children.

Creativity (some attributes different from other brand)

1, Ultrathin, dry and comfortable.

2, Cartoon sponsor “little elephant named pamper” which makes the diaper more cute.

3, Babies can wear the diaper all the night and mothers don’t need to change another diaper for babies.

4, Create a growth club for new babies’ mother to join in. And to provide specialist to answer questions about children’s care.

Marketing activities in China

1, In June 10th 2007, the carnival “growth journey of Pampers” was launched. This activity mainly conveyed the awareness of better infant care to mothers’ group.

2, In August 2007, Pampers support a disaster area to reconstruct its living area and devoted 114 thousand dollars to them.

365体育娱乐官网,3, In April 2010, Pampers broke a Guinness Record. The officials of Pampers collected 105196 pieces of baby’s sleeping photos. Then they combined these photos to create a worlds’ biggest mosaic picture which was 33 meters long and 20 meters wide.

Pampers use activities to appeal to customers’ eyes to bring the awareness to customers. So what about other company like KAO.

What’s KAO had done that’s different from Pampers? In other words, in terms of selling what’s the biggest characteristic of KAO?

Actually, KAO did little in advertisements and promotions. KAO concentrates in improving the quality of the diaper. In 2014, in terms of one piece of diaper, the price of KAO is 30% higher than Pampers.

Secondly, there are two kinds of KAO’s diaper in Chinese market. The first one is the diaper invented in China by Chinese local factory. The second one is invented by Japanese local factory. However, the quality of the former one is no worse than the latter one. But the customers did many to distinguish two products. Because Japanese factory is well-known for its precision and high quality.

One thing KAO did was to corporate with the biggest Chinese E-commerce online shop-TMALL. In Oct 13th 2015, KAO signed an agreement with TMALL. In this agreement, KAO admitted to sell its diapers which were invented by Japanese local factory. This activity was highly welcomed by many Chinese mothers’ group. Because they won’t worry about buying the fake product.

This case indicates the importance of selling channel. The appropriate selling channel can truly decrease the customers’ cost of buying the fake products and also increase sales.

What to do to react to market share lost and sales lost in the aspect of promotion and communication.

As indicated in the former part of this marketing plan, Pampers also build its own Japanese local factory. After pampers released a new Japanese brand diaper, Pampers also did some promotion activities to advertise its new product and new factory.

Pampers’ factory in Japan invited a well-known star who is also a new baby’s mother to visit its factory. They experienced the quality and technology of new pampers’ products. After that the star said “I have never thought that a simple diaper is produced by a so high-precise machine.” And they also did some experiments to test the quality of the diaper.

This case tells us that Pamper wants to communicate with mothers’ group and want to show that Pampers also has the ability to produce the high quality product like KAO. The workers, machines and philosophy of high quality can also be used by Pampers.

Suggestions are as followed:

  1. Improving the policy of returning goods.

Especially in China, P&G hold a narrow and strict policy to customers in returning goods. Companies like Apple and Samsung, scandals about unfair policy both broke out in Chinese market. Then the scandals were widely propagated by official press which hurt the companies greatly. P&G also hold the same policy to treat Chinese consumers. This is why? Firstly, the education level of Chinese customers is not so high. That is to say, if Pampers hold the same policy of returning goods as in America, Pampers would suffer a lot by vexatious customers. Secondly, the regulation and law in Chinese market is not so perfect, so some well-meaning policies has the opposite effects.

So what could Pampers do after improving the policy of returning goods. As was indicated in the former part of the marketing plan, new Pampers targets in middle and higher social class population. So if Pampers targets the right group, there will be less case about abusing the well-meaning policy. Secondly, Pampers could apply the improved policy of returning goods in official stores which are built in big cities where the education level of people is higher. Also this is somewhat like policy discrimination, but this is more suitable for improved policy of returning goods.

The improved policy of returning goods could be like…If customers don’t satisfy with the products after using it. Customers can return the rest of the products and get the whole money back. Plus customers who do so should write the complaint in a paper. This can give more ideas to Pampers to improve.

  1. Giving out free products for customers to try.

Customers can try the products first and then decide whether to buy it. For example, customers who have bought the products online might have traces and information on the internet. Pampers can collect the information and then use expressage to give free diapers for customers to try. So customers who have tried it will have more chances to buy it again. Higher consumption means higher sales (Gourville and Soman).

There are many potential customers in China. Most of them even don’t know the brand Pampers. So if they can get the free high quality diapers, they will pay more attention to this brand in the stores and then buy it again.

Especially in big cities, middle class people don’t have time for searching information about this kind of product. The cost of time is even more important than money for middle and higher class people. So Pampers can do the rest of thing. Pamper can let you try and teach you how to care babies. This can really satisfy this group of people.

Part 4: Place vs Convenience

Now that we have declared our plan about product’s price, target and promotion, and next, let’s see the channel that P&G should choose for its new product. How should the new pampers diaper be sold?

For now, P&G in China takes mainly three channels to sell its product. Firstly there are two traditional channels: distribution/wholesale and the retailer like Walmart and Carrefour to which P&G provide a direct supply. These two channels have served P&G for a long time, but we think they both are not good choice for the new product, and here are our analysis. Take distributors as an example, when P&G first entered Chinese market, it was viewed as a high-level brand, because it was an American brand. So many distributors loved to purchase its product and in some way, they help P&G to open the Chinese market. Nevertheless, after all these years, P&G has already lost its freshness, and distributors concerned more about their profit now. Unfortunately, P&G is quite strict with its price. For example, the price for one pack of diaper in the Chinese market usually is no more than 2 dollars, but the price P&G give to the distributors is 1.9 while other producer offer a 1.5. So it’s obvious that distributors would prefer to selling another brand’s product, but they have to sell Pampers diapers, because they have contract with P&G. So these distributors just put Pampers diaper on the shelf which is in the corner. This behavior caused a certain degree of decrease in Pampers diaper’s sale, and P&G is very annoyed with that, so, in the beginning of this year, P&G cut half of its distributors in China, which was viewed as a reform in its distribution system. And it would be very unwise to handle the new product to distributors at this time. As for its retailers like Walmart, unlike distributors, they still hold a good corporation relationship with P&G’s in China, however, considering the saturation in retail market these years, it’s hard for P&G to make any breakthrough. For the retailers it is getting hard to make money because in China, the amount of supermarket and big retailer is rising sharply. Just in one cross road there might be 4 to 5 big supermarkets. So it is also not proper to sell it through retailers.

Until now these two channels mentioned are based on the 4P’s theory how to transfer the product from producer to customers, but it seems not really effective now, so why not figure out just making it easier for customer to buy the product. There comes the third channel of P&G, e-commerce, through the online store. Now P&G does have its online store in Tmall, which is the biggest online shopping platform in China, so it’s not difficult for P&G to sell the new Pampers diapers through internet. However, after research, in order to make full use of the advantage of new product, it should only sell it online, which means customers cannot buy it in Walmart or other physical store. The reason for this decision is due to the Chinese’s character. In china, people who go to the supermarket are usually looking for a bargain, so even P&G also put the new product in traditional supermarket, the customers may still choose the cheaper type or other brand. And for people who go through Internet they are seeking for something different, so when customers find this product is only available online, they would think it may be really different from Pampers diapers before, let alone there is label like “made in Japan” in the product. No doubt this would attract their attention and they are the customer group that P&G should target now. Another fact that should be mentioned is that there is not really a huge difference in quality between Pampers and Kao in same level product, so the key point is to make customers believe that Papers has its high level diapers now.

Besides, selling through online store has another advantage. It can reduce the intermediate link, like when P&G negotiate with those distributors, the price for customers is higher than the price P&G offer, and for physical stores, usually they have to take expensive rent, especially in busy street. And they would rise up the price to balance the rent. But selling through Internet can eliminate these costs because the product was transferred from P&G factory to customers. This can give P&G the ability to lower its price for customers. Considering the similar quality of Pampers and Kao, still customers would prefer the lower price for their products, so it become P&G’s advantage to compete with Kao

In total, selling the new Pampers diaper through Internet give P&G the advantage that other two channels cannot, and it avoid some current problems P&G has in its traditional channels. So it would be wise to choose E-commerce for the new product.

Summary

Although Pampers diapers  in China still take the most market share which is more than as twice as Kao does, it should not ignore the dangerous signal that customers in China has changed. Besides company like Kao is grabbing the wealthy level customers from Pampers, there are also so many Chinese local diapers companies are trying to attract customers in rural area by their low price, thus, Pampers has to make some changes to earn its customers back. It’s wise to launch this new product with high quality and attractive label, however, Pampers(P&G) should also take method to improve its sales system. Firstly, Retarget its customers from most of them to the part that can bring the most profit, and at the same time, also not to forget to seize the customers it already had,like keeping improve the lower level product may enhance its competitiveness towards Chinese local companies; Secondly, realizing the customers’ idea is not only for the lower price, some of them just want to give their children a better diapers even it could be expensive, thus, combining with the first one, make a proper price is also important for its selling; Thirdly, Pampers(P&G) should also improve its promotion way, from the one-sides persuasion to communicating with its customer,by taking distribution of free sample and looser return system, the customers would feel more comfortable to buy the new product; Finally, using a popular online channel rather than traditional distribution can make customers have a clear perception of its new product, and then enhance their interests in it.

By taking this plan, we wish to help P&G enhance the competitiveness of Pampers and gain an increase in its profit, but for most of all, to restore the confidence of Pampers in Chinese market.

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