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双语囧研究,为什么我们喜欢不同的口味

2019-08-28 20:28 来源:未知

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What's your favourite flavour? Maybe you like your grub nice and spicy? Perhaps you have a sweet tooth? Or are you partial to a salty,savoury snack?

Different places have different tastes. So does Puning city. As a matter of fact,even though i am a girl who comes from Puning, i didn't grow up in Puning city. However, after graduating from the university, I have been working here as a high school teacher for 4 years. So i have tried every taste of my hometown.

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你喜欢的食物是什么?也许你喜欢吃辣的食物?也许你爱吃甜食?也许你偏爱咸的辣的零食?

Most of Puning people don't get used to spicy food. They prefer sweet food to spicy food. They likes to make CaiGuo, which is very delicious.  In  some chinese traditional festival, they will make some traditional chinese food like dumpling in lantern festival, zongzi in dragon boat festival ,Spring roll ,some other refreshments in the spring festival. As far as i am concerned, of all these tastes, Beef ball is the most famous and popular food. The authentic beef ball can seldom be found In other big cities. Most people will come to chaoshan area to eat beef ball. They even take some beef balls to their home place.For the people who live far away from chaoshan city, they will buy it through Internet and email. Most beef ball stores are clever enough to open the online shopping,providing convenience to the people living far away.

Japanese children are the healthiest in the world — here are 7 principles to borrow from them

Rotating your plate as it is placed on the table may improve the taste of your food, psychologists claim. People have a subconscious preference for food that points away from them, according to Oxford University experts, to the extent that it can affect the flavour。心理学家称,转动一下盘子,盘中餐吃起来可能更美味。据牛津大学专家分析,人的潜意识里偏爱朝向偏外的美食,摆放方向甚至会影响到食物的风味。

By now you're probably imagining something delicious, but take a moment to ponder this: why do some people adore certain flavours while others can't stand them? For example, oysters. They turn my stomach, but some spend lavishly on the slippery shellfish.

Besides food,Chaoshan people like to drink tea. There are various kinds of tea. For example,green tea, herbal tea, Tie Guan Yin tea and so on.  The herbal tea is the most popular as it is not so expensive. When people are free, they will gather together to drink tea, chatting with each other. In this way, they promote their friendship and even reach an agreement in business.  It is accepted by Chaoshan people that tea is kind of a symbol of healthy lifestyle.

Reader's Digest

An experiment involving 12,000 people, carried out at London’s Science Museum, suggests that most people prefer their meal to be aligned facing away from them, and marginally to the right. The perfect orientation, the scientists discovered, is for food to point at 3.2 degrees clockwise, a tiny fraction to the right of the vertical axis of the plate。一万两千人在伦敦的科学博物馆对做了一项实验,结果表明大多数人都更偏向菜肴不正对他们摆放,喜欢稍稍偏向右边摆。科学家们发现,完美的方食物摆放方向是顺时针方向3.2度, 即稍稍偏离餐盘中轴、

到现在你可能在想象某些美味的食物,但是请花点时间思考一下:为什么有些人特别喜欢某种口味,而另外一些却无法忍受,例如,牡蛎,它让我觉得很恶心,但是有些人却极其大方的享用这些滑溜溜的贝壳。

In a word,  through the tastes of chaoshan city, i can see the culture and value it represents.  It is the culture and value that shape  the city and influence Chaoshan people.

Naomi Moriyama, Reader's Digest

The effect is so pronounced

According to celebrity chef Heston Blumenthal, our taste preferences are strongly linked to our memories. Certain flavours might bring back the sounds and smells of a seaside holiday, or an ice-cream might trigger memories of enjoying a childhood treat. This "positive nostalgia" has a powerful effect on how we experience food.

     

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that people actually experience an improved taste when the alignment is correct, the psychologists claim. The results, published in the journal Food Quality and Preference, were obtained after thousands of people took part in an experiment at the Science Museum’s ‘Cravings Exhibition’, which explores the way reward circuits in the brain that determine flavour are altered by outside influences。心理学家称,正确摆盘效果显著,人们实际可以体验到的食物也更美味了。数千人在科学博物馆“食欲展览”参加了实验,探索外界因素是如何影响大脑的奖赏回路,从而决定食物风味的。实验结果发表在《食品质量和偏好》期刊上。

根据名厨Heston Blumenthal 所述,我们的味觉与我们的记忆相连,某些味道会带来海边度假的声音和气味,或者一根冰淇淋可能会触发我们享受童年待遇的记忆。这种“被动怀旧”对我们体验食物有很大的影响。

japanese kids, japan, kids

Charles Michel, a chef and researcher on food aesthetics at Oxford University, said many people instinctively adjust their plate when it is placed in front of them.‘This everyday action that some of us do might hint at the fact that we all enjoy our food more when it is “oriented” in the best way possible. Indeed, by arranging the food to “look better”, we might be unconsciously enhancing its perceived value, and hence our enjoyment of it。查尔斯·米歇尔是厨师,兼牛津大学食品美学研究员,称菜肴放在眼前时,许多人会本能地调整餐盘。这一日常动作很多人都会做,或许能体现这一事实,即食物摆放朝向最佳时,我们尝起食物会更美味。确实,把食物摆放好,看上去“更诱人”,我们或许下意识里会感知到食物价值的提升,从而更快乐地享受美食。

Likewise, our surroundings have an impact on culinary pleasure. The same glass of wine can taste different depending on the background music. Blumenthal believes playing loud music makes people eat more quickly, while classical music makes them spend more money on wine.

p_x_g via Flickr

(来源:沪江英语)

同样,我们的环境对我们食物的乐趣也有影响,同样一杯酒根据背景音乐不同品尝方法不同,布卢门撒尔认为演奏糟杂音乐时吃的更快,而演奏古典音乐时人们会花更多的酒钱。

According to the results of a major worldwide health study published in The Lancet, if you are a child born in Japan today, you are projected to enjoy both the longest life and the healthiest life.

Alongside memory and ambience, our genetics also have a powerful impact on taste preferences. Neuroscientist Charles Zucker from Columbia University believes all animals are "pre-wired" to prefer sweet tastes over sour. "There are no lions out in the wild drinking tonic water," he says.

Lifestyle and eating patterns are a big reason why.

除了记忆和氛围外,我们的基因也对口味有很大影响,来自哥伦比亚大学神经专家Charles Zucker认为所有动物都偏爱甜食和过酸的食物,他说“在野外没有狮子喜欢饮用滋补水”。

We all want our children to be healthy and happy, but food-the very thing that should nourish the next generation-has become a battleground for many families, and the source of much confusion and controversy in the media. According to the results of a major worldwide health study published in The Lancet, if you are a child born in Japan today, you are projected to enjoy both the longest life and the healthiest life, and lifestyle and eating patterns are a big reason.

On a more individual level, our personal genetic inherited preferences are significant. "And that is likely to greatly impact how much sugar I want to have in my coffee," says Dr Zucker. "It might be that I need six spoons of sugar to get the same level of satisfaction and reward that you get with only two."

Because even as childhood obesity and incidences of diabetes skyrocket around the world, Japanese childhood obesity levels have historically been much lower, and have in fact been declining overall in recent years. What are their secrets? As parents, my husband William and I needed to know.

在更个人的层面上,我们的个人遗传因素是很显著的,Zucker博士说,“这很可能影响到我在我咖啡里加多少糖,也可能我需要六匙糖而你达到相同的满意程度只需要两匙糖”。

Based on our research and interviews with world's experts, doctors and nutritionists, we distilled the lessons into seven practical steps that all parents can take to nurture their child's health.

Coffee is also an interesting example of how our tastes change over time. Most children don't like the maltinessof beer or the bitterness of strong coffee. But many adults enjoy the social reward – the relaxing effects of alcohol or the stimulation gained by coffee.

Make family meals more satisfying

咖啡也是一种有趣的例子,口味随着时间变化而变化的,大部分孩子不喜欢啤酒的麦芽味或者浓咖啡的苦涩。但是很多成年人享受这种社会奖励——酒精的放松效果或者从咖啡里得到的刺激效果。

Japanese-style eating is very efficient in that it's both filling and it delivers a high-quality nutrient package. When you fill up on the good stuff your body needs, you'll naturally have fewer cravings (and less room) for junk. But you don't have to eat seaweed, sushi, and tofu to nourish a healthy child-just tweak your family food habits in a more healthy direction.

These are what we call acquired tastes– things we gradually learn to like - whether it's because our palates become more sophisticated, or because we crave the social effects of the foods.

Serve more plant-based foods like fruits, vegetables, beans, whole grains, and healthy fats, like heart-healthy omega 3-rich fish, and less processed food with added sugars and salt. This food pattern is relatively low in calories, high in nutrients, and more efficiently filling by being lower in calorie density or "calories per bite." This will help minimize the risks of obesity and the hosts of illnesses it triggers, and maximize the probability of a long, healthy life. One secret: Japan's default meal foundation is rice, much more than bread or pasta.

这些我们称为后天培养出来的品味——我们逐渐学会喜欢这些事情 -是否是因为我们的口味变得越来越复杂还是因为我们渴望食物的社会效应。

The advantage of Japanese-style short-grain rice, preferably brown, or the incredibly good tasting haiga partially milled rice, is that it is water-rich when cooked, fluffy, and super-filling, and much lower in calorie density than bread. All that belly-filling rice might also displace less healthy foods and reduce the overall number of calories eaten. If your kids won't eat fish, here are other ways to get heart-healthy, brain-boosting, inflammation-busting omega-3 fatty acids into their diet.

For me though, I'm yet to see the allure in oysters, whether social or epicurean!

Celebrate eating-along with flexible restraint

对我来说,我还没有看到牡蛎上的诱惑,无论在社交上还是美食上!

Encourage your child to enjoy occasional treats and snacks-but in the proper amounts and frequencies, which are much smaller and less frequent in Japan than those that are typical in the West. The nutritionist Tomomi Takahashi of the Kaji Sakura Nursery School in Hokkaido, has great advice for all parents. "You don't need to try so hard," she says. "Have a relaxed attitude, so your child can relax and be comfortable eating. Show your child that you enjoy eating, and the food tastes wonderful."

japan_bus_drinks

Junko Kimura/Getty

She stresses the importance of dining together. "Even when you're busy, set a specific meal time so you can sit down and eat with your child at least once a day," she says, adding: "Cook your meals with love, and it will resonate in the child's heart. Feel the joy of eating together with your child." Research suggests that parents should "lighten up" about their children's eating habits, cut out food stress and pressure, and just enjoy eating together as a family. Here's how regular family meals boost kids' health.

Encourage your child to explore new foods

Children's food likes and dislikes change over time, and parents can gently steer them towards healthier patterns simply by exposing them to a wide variety of choices and by setting an example. The earlier and wider a child's experience with sampling new healthy foods, the healthier their diet will become through childhood. Repeated opportunities for a child to sample new foods leads to their trying more, eating more, and liking more.

This insight can inspire you to continue to tempt your children with new tastes over time, because their taste can mature, expand, and change constantly as they grow up-right into adulthood. Infants may need only one exposure to a new food to sharply increase their eating and liking it; and children over age 2 might need significantly more-up to 20 exposures. So don't give up too early. Keep offering new foods, even small "tasting" samples-without pressure. As my grandmother Tsune often said, echoing a bit of Japanese folk wisdom, "a new food prolongs one's life." Check out these nutritionist-approved ways to master mealtime with a picky eater.

Rebalance your dinner plate with Japanese-style portions

By now, most of us know that the average serving sizes of restaurant meals has super-sized out of control over the past 20 years, causing us to mindlessly over-eat almost all the time. How can you normalize portions? Simply give your larger serving plates a break (put them up on the highest shelf) and serve meals on smaller plates, like the side, salad, bread plates, you already have-plates about four- to six-inches in diameter, and the bowls about one- to three-inches, holding about 100 to 200 ml (or about three-quarters of a cup).

japanese_sushi

Jason Kempin/Getty

The idea of using smaller plates is gathering momentum at various dietary research organizations. Jennifer Orlet Fisher, PhD, director of the Temple University Center for Obesity Research and Education and its Family Eating Laboratory, found that children tend to not serve themselves huge portions when left to their own devices. She feels that offering children smaller plates and letting them take their own food could be helpful in keeping portion size and appetite in proper perspective. The lessons from Japan: Serve food on smaller plates-but don't skimp on fruit and veggies! Here are more insider tricks to eating less without really noticing.

Get your child running and jumping

It's hard to pry kids away from their video games and other tech temptations, but they really need a minimum of 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per day. The key is to make it fun! Try power-walking to school together or building in time for free play in the playground. Researchers have found that Japan has exceptionally high rates (98.3 percent) of children walking or biking to school compared with other similar-income countries, which is obviously linked with Japan's low levels of childhood obesity.

The World Health Organization reports that appropriate levels of physical activity for 5 to 17-year-olds contribute to the development of healthy bones, muscles, and joints, as well as a healthy cardiovascular system, coordination, and movement control, improving management of symptoms of anxiety and depression, and providing opportunities for a child's self-expression, social interaction and integration. The fact is that children love to play. It's natural for them, and they will find all kinds of ways to play if given the opportunity.

Send your child outside to play in safe environments. The wisdom of this, and the research to support it, is clear: Children are biologically engineered to move, run, and jump, and when they do, they perform better at school, are happier and more focused. And the health benefits of this lifestyle habit may be substantial in helping to give our children the longest, healthiest lives possible.

Nurture a wrap-around family lifestyle

Create a wrap-around home environment that supports healthy food and lifestyle choices. Eat family meals together regularly. Practice healthy, delicious cooking, and joyful eating as an example for your children. The idea of bringing children into the kitchen as a pathway to health was supported by a study of a group of 6- to 10-year-old children published in the August 2014 journal Appetite.

japanese_dinner

Tomohiro Ohsumi/Getty

The study says that involving children in the preparation of healthy and balanced meals could be a valuable intervention strategy to improve their diets. The idea of eating family meals together is a practice that many families around the world, including in Japan, are finding harder and harder to pull off, as parents work later and after-school schedules get increasingly booked up.

But it is a goal worth striving for, because the potential health benefits for children appear to be huge. A research paper published in the November 2014 issue of Pediatrics reported that warmth, group enjoyment, and parental positive reinforcement at family meals were significantly associated with reduced risk of childhood overweight and obesity.

Don't be shy about being the boss

Some parents are uncomfortable exercising authority over their child, but when it comes relaying food and lifestyle habits to your children, Japanese parents find success using an authoritative rather than an authoritarian approach. Authoritative parenting, pioneered in the early 1960s by the psychologist Diana Baumrind, is an easy, effective way to be the boss your children need without resorting to phrases like "because I said so," which can erode their trust (so can these other phrases).

With authoritative parenting, you establish guidelines and rules that your children are expected to follow, listen to questions, and be nurturing and strategic in your approach to discipline. You are assertive, but not intrusive and restrictive. You are supportive, rather than punitive. "The authoritative model of discipline," Baumrind wrote, "is characterized by the use of firm control contingently applied and justified by rational explanation of consistently enforced rules."

It is possible for us as parents, anywhere in the world, to build an environment for children that, although far from perfect, can inspire them to adopt tastes and habits that will increase their chances of enjoying as long and healthy a life as it's possible for them to experience.

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